Nesting by Canada Geese on Baffin Island, Nunavut (PDF Download Available) canada géise branta canadensis

Nesting by Canada Geese on Baffin Island, Nunavut

Article  · August 2015   with   78 Reads DOI: 10.14430/arctic4502
  • Jukka JantunenJukka Jantunen
  • Anne C. MacLeodAnne C. MacLeod
  • James O. Leafloor at Environment CanadaJames O. Leafloor
    • 24.21
    • Environment Canada
  • Kim T Scribner at Michigan State UniversityKim T Scribner
    • 42.02
    • Michigan State University
AbstractOutside of northern Quebec, there is little evidence to confirm reports of nesting by Canada Geese in Arctic habitats of North America, but they nest regularly in the Arctic tundra of West Greenland, from about 62˚ N to as far north as 76.96˚ N, 71.11˚ W. In 2013, we documented successful nesting by a pair of Canada Geese on northern Baffin Island (71.36˚ N, 79.59˚ W), approximately 1200 km north of the nearest known site of regular nesting by this species in northern Quebec. Photographs, egg measurements, and mitochondrial DNA evidence confirmed that these were Canada Geese. Egg laying began around 17 June, the nest of five eggs hatched on 18 July, and we determined that fledging should have occurred around 20 September. Daily mean temperatures on northern Baffin Island fell below freezing after 5 September 2013, and we suspect that the probability of recruitment for this brood was very low. Climate warming in the Arctic is likely to favor northward range expansion by Canada Geese.

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Join for free ARCTICVOL. 68, N O . 3 (SEPTE MBER 2015) P. 310 – 31 6http://dx. doi.org/10. 14430/ arctic4502Nesting by Canada Geese on Bafn Island, N unavutJuk ka Ja ntu ne n, 1 Anne C. MacLeo d, 2 Ja mes O. Leao or 3 and Ki m T. Scribne r 4 ( Received 9 Sep tember 2014 ; accepted i n revise d form 25 November 2014 ) ABSTR ACT . Out side of nort hern Queb ec, t here is little evidence to con r m re port s of nesti ng by Can ada Geese in A rctic habitats of Nor th Ame rica, but t hey nest reg ularly i n the Ar ctic tu ndra of West Gre enland , from ab out 62˚ N to as far north a s 76.9 6 ˚ N, 71. 1 1 ˚ W . In 201 3, we documented succ essful ne sting by a pai r of Canada G eese on nort hern Ba fn Isla nd (71 .36˚ N, 79. 59 ˚ W), approxim ately 1200 km nor th of the neares t known site of regu lar nesti ng by this spe cies in nor thern Q uebec. Photographs, egg measu rements, and mitochond rial DNA ev idence con r med that t hese were C anad a Geese. Egg laying began a round 17 June, t he nest of ve eggs hatched on 18 July, and we dete rmi ned that edging should have oc cur red arou nd 20 September. Daily m ean tempe ratu res on nor ther n Baf n Island fell below fre ezing af ter 5 Se ptember 2013, and we suspect that the probabilit y of recr uitme nt for thi s bro od wa s ver y low. Climate war ming in the A rctic is likely to favor nor thward range expansion by Cana da Geese. Key words: Arctic; Branta canade nsis ; breed ing range; Canad a Goose; egg size; genetics; nesting; Nunav ut RÉSUM É. En dehors d u nord du Qu é be c, il existe pe u de preuves per mett ant de con r mer des rapp orts selon les quels la bern ache du Canad a n idier ait dans les habit ats arctiqu es de l’ Amérique du Nord. Cela dit, la ber nache du Cana da nidi e régulièr ement d ans la tound ra a rctique de l’o uest du Groen land, à par tir d’ environ 62˚ N et a ussi loin qu’ à 76,96˚ N, 71, 1 1˚ O. En 2013, nous avons doc umenté la nid ication réus sie d’une pai re de bern aches du Cana da dan s le nord de l’île de Baf n (71 ,36˚ N, 79 ,59˚ O ), à environ 1 200 km au nord du site le plus près de n idication ha bituel connu de cet te espè ce dans le nord du Q u é bec. Des phot ographie s, la mesu re des œ ufs et de s éch antillons d’ ADN m itochondr ial ont pe rmis de con rme r qu’il s’ agissait ef fectivement de b erna ches d u Ca nada. La ponte a c ommencé vers le 17 jui n, puis la couvée de cinq œufs a éclos le 18 juillet. Nous avons e nsuite déter miné que la pr ise des ai les au rait eu lieu vers le 20 septe mbre. Da ns le nord de l’île de Bafn , les tempér ature s moyenne s quotid iennes sont t ombées s ous le point d e congélation après le 5 septembre 2013, si bien que nous esti mons que pour cet te nichée, la probabil ité de recr utement éta it t rès faible. Le réchau ffement climat ique dan s l’ Arctique favorisera vr aisemblablement l’ expansion du parcou rs natu rel de la bernache du Ca nada vers le nord. Mots clés : Ar ctique; Bran ta canaden sis ; zone de reproduct ion; be rnache du C anada ; tai lle des œufs; g éné tique; nid ication ; Nunav ut Traduit pour la revue Arctic pa r Nicole G iguè re. 1 6 Gill is Place, Whit ehorse, Yukon Y1A 0C6, Canada 2 Env ironme ntal Dy namics I nc., 21 95 2nd A venue, Whitehorse, Yukon Y1A 3T8, Canada 3 Cor resp onding author : Canadia n Wildlife Ser vice, 150-123 Main Street, Wi nnipeg, Ma nitoba R3C 4W2, Can ada; ji m.lea oor@e c.gc.ca 4 De par tment of Fisheries a nd Wildlife, Michiga n State Universit y, East Lansing, Michiga n 48824-1222, USA © The Arc tic Inst itute of Nort h Amer icaI NT ROD UC TI ONIn 2004, the A merican Or nithologists’ Union (AO U) split North American white- cheeked geese i nto two species (Ban ks et al., 20 04). The Ca ckling Goose, Branta hutchinsii , is a small-bodied species that nests in Arct ic tund ra habitats of northern Canada and Alaska, while the C anada Goose, Branta canadensis , is a large-bodied species that nests mainly in sub-A rctic and temperate regions of Nor th America (Mowbray et al., 2002). The two species ov erlap extensively on migration and wintering areas outside of the breeding s eason, and yearlings and failed ne sters from many Cana da Goose populations undert ake nort hward molt m igrations i n late May to June that can result in overlap with Cackling Geese in the Arctic duri ng wi ng molt (e.g., Luukkonen et al., 2008). For the most par t, t he breed ing r anges of the t wo species do not overlap ( but see Nor ment et al., 1999 and Leaoor et al., 2013 ). To ou r knowledge, Cackli ng Geese do not ne st outside of Arct ic t und ra habitats (i.e., below or wit hin the tree line). Canad a G eese nest mostly in suitable h abitats south of the tree line, which extends above the Arctic Circle in wester n Nor th A merica a nd to about 59 ˚ N latitude in easter n North Amer ica (Fig. 1 ). Regular nest ing by Ca nada Geese is known to occu r in Arct ic h abitats above the t ree line in nor ther n Q uebec (Cotter et al., 201 3) , but despite CANADA GEESE ON B AFFI N ISLAND • 31 1many anecdotal reports, evidence of n esting by Canad a Geese elsewhere i n t he A rctic tund ra of Nort h A merica is still relatively scarce ( see below ).Long before Cackli ng Ge ese were ofcially recogn ized as a species, there were repor ts of large-bodied Canada Geese nesting in the A rctic tundra, sometimes in close proximity t o morphologically simila r small-bod ied geese. Sutton (1 93 2) reporte d such observat ions by Inuit residents of Southampton Island , includi ng a desc ription of eggs laid by la rge Ca nada Geese that were init ially thought to be swan eggs because of their large siz e. However, no meas - urements of t he eggs were obtained , a nd no nesti ng spe ci - mens of large-bod ied Ca nada Geese were collected duri ng Sutton’ s (1 932 ) exploration of the island in 1929 – 30. Sope r (1 946: 16) r eporte d t hat t he large-bodied form of Ca nada Goose “breed s very spar ingly along the souther n coast of Fox e Peninsula” a nd that it wa s absent as a breeder f rom western Bafn Island, but he did not observe or collect any gos ling specimens from large-bodied geese d uri ng his explorations of southwestern Baf n Isla nd from 1928 to 193 1. Sut ton and Parmelee (1 955) described ightless large-bodied Ca nada Gee se ( B. c. interior ) accompanied by goslings on southeast ern Baf n Island and included meas - urements of a single adult female that was shot from the ock, but there was no way to ver ify that this adult female was a parent to any of the goslings. Cooch (1977) repor ted observation s of an inter mediate -sized form ( B. c. interior ) and a smal l form ( B. c. hut chinsii ) of Cana da Goose that were accompanied by young on the West Fox e Is lands (64 . 23 ˚ N, 76.22 ˚ W) ne a r Ca pe Do r s e t , Nu n a vu t, bu t di d not provide data t o corrobor ate the size of the birds. Br andt (1 943 ) de scribed t he nest of what he called a Lesser Ca nada Goose, a pale-colored goose th at had larger eggs th an the small Cackling Geese that predominat ed a round Hooper Bay , Alaska , but no egg mea surements were t aken. Le page et al. (199 8) reported t hat both la rge-bodied a nd small-bod-ied forms of Can ada Geese were obser ved on Bylot Island , Nunavut, between 1979 and 1997 , but it was u nclear which species was accompanied by the goslings that they observed during ae rial sur veys. Norment et al. (1 999 ) reported obser - vations of Canad a Geese a ccompanied by gosli ngs in t he forest-tundr a transition between 62.4 ˚ N, 1 04.8 ˚ W a n d 64.6 ˚ N, 100.5 ˚ W an d me nt io n e d s e p ar a te l y t h a t a s m al l subspecies nested in this area on clif fs a long the Clarke River, but they did not provide any other inform ation. Mal-lory et al. (2005) repor ted a necdotal evidence of nesting (large-bodied) Canada Geese from several locations on Bafn Island that was base d on obser vations by Inuit hu nt-ers, w ildlife ofcer s, and scientic i nvestigators. Despite numerous obser vations, there was no conclusive scienti c evidence (e .g., photographs, measure ments of adult geese or their eggs, genetic mat erials collected from eggs, nests, or pre-edging goslings) to verify that Ca nada G eese, and not Cackling Geese, ha d nested in any of these cases. Leaoor et al. ( 201 3 ) descr ibed a n arrow hybrid zone on the west coa st of Hudson Bay where Canad a Ge ese and Cackling Geese overlapped on nesting areas. Species iden-tication was based on morphological and genetic data , and hybrids were ident ied as those birds that had phenoty pic mismatches wit h their mtDNA (i.e., a large-bod ied goose with the mtDNA of a Ca ckling Goose, or vice versa). The area of overlap coincided with the tree line on the west coast of Hudson Bay, at t he t ransition zone bet ween bore al taiga and A rctic tund ra habitats (around 60 ˚ N latit ude). The hybr id zone w as hy pothesized to be a tension zone, where nor thward effective d ispersal by Canada Geese and southward effective d ispersal by Cackli ng Geese were li m-ited by ecological and behavioral factors. The shor t g row - ing season in t he Arc tic was one factor thought to limit the northward extent of nest ing by Ca nada Geese (Le aoor et al., 201 3 ). Despite t he d eart h of physical ev idence i n Nor th Amer - ica, there is no doubt that large-bodied C anada Geese are capable of nesting i n the Arct ic and no reaso n to believe that any of the aforementioned acc ounts were m istaken in their identication o f la rge-bodied Canada Geese, as opposed to the small-bodied birds now k nown as Cackli ng Geese. On the west coa st of Gre enland, nest ing by C anada Gee se has been do cumented f rom about 62 ˚ N to as fa r no rth as 76.9 6 ˚ N , 7 1.11 ˚ W (F o x et al . , 20 12 ; A.D . Fo x, pers . comm . 201 3 ). Nesting by Canada Geese on Greenland appear s to be a re cent phenomenon , a nd nu mbers have g reatly i ncreased there since the late 1980s (Fox et al., 201 1 ). Species identi-cation ha s be en ver ied by mor phological and egg meas - urements (Fox et al., 1996, 2012 ) and genetic dat a (Scribner et al., 2003b). Band ing and telemetr y dat a have also con - rmed that the Canad a G eese ne sting on G reenland wi nter on the east coast of Nort h America ( Kri stiansen et al., 1999; Scribner et al., 2003b) , where Cackling Geese are relatively uncommon. In this paper we docu ment nest ing by a pair of Canada Geese on nort hern Baf n Island in 20 13 .FIG. 1. Map of northe rn Baf n Island, wit h the nest site locatio n denoted by a star. Most Canad a Gee se nest i n sub -Arctic and te mperat e region s below the tree li ne indicat ed on the map (see text for except ions), while Cackl ing Gees e nest exclusively nor th of the t ree lin e. 31 2 • J. J ANTU NEN et a l.METHOD S AN D RES ULTSA pair of Canad a Geese was obser ved and photographed b y A. Ma c L eo d and J. Ja n tu n e n at a nes t si t e on n or t h er n Bafn Island, Nunavut , on 26 June 2013 (Figs. 2a – c). The nest site was found in the interior r egion of norther n Baf n Island, about 75 km southea st of Milne I nlet and 100 k m north of Steen sby In let, at 71.3 6˚ N, 79.59˚ W (Fig. 1). The nest was located in sedge ( Carex aquatilis ) mea dow habi - tat at the edge of a pond, with a larger lake (approximately 2.7 k m 2 ) located 200 – 300 m away . The nest contained ve eggs when it was found on 26 June; max imum length and width of the eggs (± SD) aver - aged 85. 0 ( ± 0. 70 ) × 5 6.2 (± 0.83 ) m m. Egg dimensions were similar t o those of Cana da Geese that nest i n coastal and boreal regions around James Bay and Hudson Bay ( B. c. interior ), but were smaller than those of t emperate-ne st - ing Canad a Geese ( B. c. maxima ) , and larger than those of Cackli ng Gee se (Table 1) . The f emale was incubati ng the eggs when the nest was re-visited on 13 July, but on 18 July, a pair of Canad a Gees e with ve rece ntly hatche d gos - lings, presumably the pair from this nest, was photographed walking away from the nest site at 2:35 p. m. (Fig. 2d). Egg-shells and membranes f rom hat ched eggs w ere collect ed from t he nest site a nd stored in a pape r envelope u ntil t hey were shipped to K.T . Scribne r for genetic analysis. DNA was ext racted f rom regions of va sculari zation on the eggshell membrane of indiv idual eggs using DNeasy extract ion kits (Qiagen Inc., CA) . A 143 bp frag ment of the 5’ end of the mitochond rial DNA cont rol region an king the hyper var iable p ortion of t he control region (3’ e nd of domain; Baker and Marshal l, 1997) wa s sequenced u sing primer s and c onditions descr ibed i n Pierson et al. (2000) and Pearce et al. ( 2000). T he sa mple’ s m tDNA sequence was c haracte rized as A haplo type (GenBank Accession number AF17 54 73 ), which is the most com mon haplotype found in Canad a Geese but is not found in Cackling Geese sampled acr oss the species’ r ange (see met hods a nd resu lts in Scr ibne r et al., 20 03a, b).FIG. 2. A n estin g pair of Cana da Gee se on nor ther n Baf n Isl and: (a) the ga nder, (b) inc ubatin g female, (c) the nest wit h ve eggs, showing habitat around the nest site dom inate d by the sedge , Carex aqu atilis , and (d) pair of C anad a Geese an d their br ood of ve goslings l eaving t he nest site on 18 July 2013. CANADA GEESE ON B AFFI N ISLAND • 313DISCUSSIONThis account pro vides conclusive evidence to support earlier observations of nesting by Canada Geese in the easter n A rctic of North Amer ica (e.g. , Sutton, 1932 ; Soper, 1946; Cooch, 19 77; Mallory et al., 2005). A s far as we know, this is the northern most conr med nesti ng record for Canada Geese in Nor th A merica. I f we assume a six-day egg-laying period and a 28-day i ncubation per iod (Mow - bray et al., 20 02), then egg layi ng began on approximately 1 7 June. By contrast, the average nest in itiation date in West Greenla nd i n 2010 was 27 May (Fox et al., 201 1 ). At the nea rest k nown site of regu lar nest ing by Canad a Gee se in Canada (1200 km south o f the northern Baf n nest site in norther n Quebec), the average date of nest init iation from 1996 to 2005 was also 27 May (Cotter et al., 2013 ). T he lat-est nest initiat ion observed in nor thern Q uebec occur red on 20 Ju ne 20 02, a nd no nest s were in itiated afte r 10 Ju ne i n any other year of the study (Fig. 2 in Cotte r et al., 2013 ). If we f urt her assume a pre-edgi ng pe riod of approxim ately 63 days afte r hatchi ng (Mowbray et al., 2002), then the gos - lings on northe rn Bafn should have edged around 20 Se pt e mb er.Until recently, accou nts of nes ting by large-bod ied Can-ada Geese in the Arctic (especially above ~62 ˚ N lati tude ) appeared to be relative ly r are. Though F ox et al. (2012 ) reporte d that a pai r of large-bodied Canada Ge ese proba - bly bred i n West Gre enland at least a s early as 1864, evi - dence of annual nesting has been found only within the past few decade s and may be associated with a wa rmer climate there. May temperat ures in West Green land averaged 2 ˚ C warmer than in nor ther n Quebec, Canad a, bet ween 1979 and 201 0, and Canad a Geese initiated nests at the same time in bot h places in 201 0, even t hough Green land birds traveled ~1300 km far ther nort h before nesting (Fox et al., 201 1). This corres pondence of timing suggests that even rel-atively small changes in te mperatu re could have profound effects on the suitability of A rctic habitat s for nesti ng by TABLE 1 . Mean length and width (± SD) o f Canada Goose a nd Cackling Goos e eggs from various t axa and locations compa red to those measure d in thi s study.Taxon Locatio n Width (mm) Lengt h (mm) n Source B. h. hutc hinsii Kar rak La ke, Nunav ut 49. 7 (3.8) 73 (9.6) 640 R. Alisau skas an d D. Kellett, u npubl. dat a Southam pton Island , Nunav ut 53.4 78.5 77 MacInn es and Du nn, 1988B. c. inter ior Ungava, Que bec 56.3 (1.4 ) 83.4 (4. 1) 18 992 Cott er et al., 2013 Quebec, O ntar io 56.6 (1 .0) 83.9 (2.2) 334 Manni ng, 1978 Cape Chu rchill , Manitob a 56.9 (2.0) 83.4 (3 .5) 6769 D. Anderse n, unpu bl. data Aki miski I sland, Nu navut 57.2 ( 1.8) 84.7 (3.6) 15 942 J. Leaoor a nd R. Brook , unpubl. d ata South Hudso n Bay, Ontario 57.6 (1 .8) 85.1 (3.6) 1907 K . Abraha m and R. Bro ok, unpu bl. data Kinoje La ke, Onta rio 58.0 85.1 74 Raveling a nd Lumsd en, 1977B. c. maxima Marshy Point , Manit oba 1970 5 9 (1 .5) 86.6 (3.6) 866 Cooper, 1978 Columbia, M issour i 59.2 ( 5.2) 87.6 (8.2) 945 J. Coluccy, unpubl. dat a Fargo, North D akota 59.8 ( 1.9) 86.3 (3.1) 1126 M. Clar k, unpu bl. data Marshy Point , Manit oba 1971 59 .9 (1 .9) 87. 1 (3.2) 876 Cooper, 1978B. canadensis ssp. Bafn I sland, Nu navut 56.2 (0.7) 85 (0.8 ) 5 This study -15 -10 -5 0 5 10 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 Mean May temperature ˚C (mean of daily means)Year Kangerlussuaq, West Greenland Kuujjuaq, Ungava, Quebec Pond Inlet, Baffin Island FIG. 3. Com paris on of me an May tempe ratu res at Ka ngerlussu aq, West Gree nland (67 .02˚ N, 50 .7 0 ˚ W), Kuu jjuak, Unga va, Quebec (5 8. 1 0 ˚ N, 68.68 ˚W), a nd Pond Inlet, B afn I sland, Nu navut (72.70˚ N, 77.96˚ W), 1979 – 20 13 ( climate d ata f rom TuT iempo Networ k, 2015). 31 4 • J. JANTU NEN et a l.Canada Geese (see also Jensen et al., 2008). However , May temperat ures at Pond In let, Nunavut , averaged about 9 to 11 ˚ C colder over the same period , suggest ing a subst antial delay in s pring th aw a nd plant g rowth on nor ther n Bafn Island compared t o both nor ther n Quebec and West Green-land (Fig. 3 ). Successful nesting b y geese in the Arctic depends o n suitable spr ing te mperatu res, absence of snow cover, avail-ability of su itable forage, and a snow-free per iod that is long enough to allow goslings to edge before the onset of migration (e.g. , Dickey et al., 2008; J ensen et al., 2008). The Canada Geese that we observed hatched on 18 July, which suggests that goslings would not h ave edged until around 20 Septe mber, assu ming a 63-day edging period (captive Canada Geese fed high- quality diets ad libit um r equired 70 d ays to complete growt h of pr imar ies; Richma n et al., 201 5). Ground frost s bega n on no rther n Bafn Is land i n mid-August, and daily mea n temper atures fell below freez-ing after 5 September 20 13 (Fig. 4a), which would have inhibited plant grow th and elevated ther moregulator y demands during pre-mig ration fueling. Thus, we expect that the probability of recr uitment would be very low for this brood o f Can ada Geese. In contra st, Canada Goose goslings i n West G reenland would have edged around 20 days ea rlier (i.e., i n late August), a nd mea n d aily te mpera - tures there did not consistently fal l below f reezing before the end of Septem ber ( Fig. 4b) . F o r A r c t i c - n e s t i ng g e e s e , t h e na r r o w w i n d o w o f ti m e available to lay and incubate eggs and raise young to ed g-ing is a major det ermi nant of the norther n lim it of the breeding ra nge (Jensen et al., 2008). Species of gee se t hat nest reg ularly on Baf n Island include Ross’ s Geese ( Chen rossii ), Brant ( Branta ber nicla ), Snow Geese ( Chen caer - ulescens ), a nd Cackl ing Gee se, all of which have shor ter incubation periods and shorte r edg ing times than Can - ada Geese (Tabl e 2). T undra Swans ( Cygnus columbianu s ), which a re larger and have longer reproduct ive cycles than do Can ada Geese (Table 2) , do not nest on nort hern Baf n Island a nd a re uncommon breede rs on southern and west - ern Baf n I sland (Soper, 1946; J. Leaoor and F. Roetker, unpubl. data). Climate warm ing in t he Arctic is expe cted to result i n e arlier springs and delayed onset of w inter condi - tions t hat w ill affect plant phenology (e.g ., Schwartz et al., 2006; Prowse et al., 200 9), and t hese cha nges a re l ikely to favor nor thwa rd rang e expan sion by Ca nad a Gees e. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTSThe Canad a Goose nest was disc overed duri ng eld su rveys conducted for the Mary River Project terrest rial monitori ng program ; f unding for this work was provided by Ba fn land Iron Mines Corp oration. Eggshells and membranes from hatched eggs w ere collected a nd tran sport ed under pe rmit s issued by Environ ment Cana da a nd the U.S. Fish and Wildl ife Ser vice. We than k K. Abr aham, R. Ali sauskas , D. Ander sen, R. Brook, M. Clark, J. Coluccy, C. Ely, and D. Kellett for allowi ng us to us e their unpublished data on egg size. We are gr ateful to K . Meere s for the map in Figure 1, a nd t o A. D. Fox for the temper atur e -10 -5 0 5 10 15 20 25 25 Jul 04 Aug14 Aug24 Aug03 Sep 13 Sep23 Sep03 Oct Temperature (ºC) -10 -5 0 5 10 15 20 25 25 Jul 04 Aug 14 Aug24 Aug03 Sep 13 Sep 23 Sep03 Oct Temperature (ºC)Pond Inlet Kangerlussuaq2504142403132303FIG. 4. Daily me an, minimum , a nd m aximu m temperatu res (˚C) from 1 August to 30 September 2013 at Pond Inlet on nort her n Bafn Island and at Kange rlussua q i n W est G reenl and. Triangles represent daily mean temp erat ures, an d dashes rep resent dai ly mini mum and max imum temperatures. TABLE 2. Approximate number of days of egg laying, incubation, and gos ling growth to edging for large-bodied herbivorous waterfowl species that ne st in the A rctic.Species Egg laying Incu bation Fledging Total SourceRoss’s Goose 4 – 6 19 – 25 40 – 43 63 – 74 Jonsson et a l., 2013Brant 5 24 40 – 45 69 – 74 Lewis e t al., 2013Lesser Sn ow Goose 5 – 7 24 40 – 43 69 – 74 Mowbray et al., 20 00Great er Snow Goose 5 – 7 24 43 72 – 74 Mowbray et al., 20 00Great er Whit e-front ed Goose 5 – 7 25 42 – 49 73 – 81 Ely and Dz ubin, 1994Cackli ng Goose 5 – 7 26 – 27 42 – 49 73 – 83 Mowbray et al., 20 02Canad a Goose 5 – 7 27 – 28 63 95 – 98 Mowbray et al., 2002Tundra Swan 6 – 10 31 – 3 2 65 102 – 107 Limper t and Ea rnst , 1994 CANADA GEESE ON B AFFI N ISLAND • 315compari sons in Figures 3 and 4. M. Oldham ident ied the spec ies of sedge from samples obtai ned at t he nest site, and J. Ka nefsky assisted with the seq uencing analysis. We th ank K.F. Abra ham, R.T . Alisauskas, F .B. Baldwin, A.D. 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Infectious Diseases

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  • Indranil Samanta Email author
  • Samiran Bandyopadhyay
Chapter First Online: 25 February 2017
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Abstract

The chapter describes bacerial, viral, parasitic and fungal infections commonly detected in pet birds. The chapter includes history, etiology, susceptible hosts, transmission, pathogenesis, clinical symptoms, lesion, diagnosis, zoonosis, Treatment and control strategy of Tuberculosis, Salmonellosis, Chlamydiosis, Campylobacteriosis, Lyme disease, other bacterial infection, Newcastle disease, Avian Influenza infection, West Nile Virus infection, Usutu virus infection, Avian Borna Virus infection, Beak and feather disease, other viral infection, Toxoplasmosis, Giardiasis, Cryptosporidiosis, other parasitic infection, Cryptococcosis, Aspergillosis, Other fungal infections.

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