Clash Royale Generateur Gemmes et Astuces gås canada

Générateur De Gemmes Pour Clash Royale France

Bienvenue sur notre page générateur de gemmes pour Clash Royale. Puisque que ce jeu est complètement nouveau, la forte demande de gemmes pour Clash Royale est bel et bien là et nous avons mis sur pied ce generateur de gemmes pour pouvoir donner un coup de main aux débutants de ce jeu.
En cochant cette case, vous acceptez le fait que vous allez recevoir un guide détaillé
à propos de Clash Royale et de comment générer des gemmes.

Pour accéder au générateur en ligne cliquez ci-dessous :
Ce nouveau jeu risque d'être un énorme succès comme les autres variante déjà sortie depuis quelques années. Clash Royale est un petit jeu d'aréna 1 contre 1 qui à été conçu par Supercell, les mêmes qui ont créé Clash of Clans et Boom Beach. Il s’agit de leur dernière création et les gens semblent déjà l'apprécier. Il est également un des jeux les plus populaire et jouer de la scène des jeux mobile comme Game Of War Fire Age et autres. Ce petit risque d'avoir un très bon succès comme Supercell sais bien le faire ! Qui aurait pu croire au potentiel caché derrière Clash Royale. N'attendez pas plus longtemps et allons directement au point chaud du sujet : comment obtenir des gemmes pour Clash Royale. Vous vous demandez probablement comment obtenir des gemmes de façon illimité pour le jeu Clash Royale ? Nous avons la réponse à votre question et nous sommes très content de vous la présenter. Ici vous utiliserez la version de 2016 en ligne de Clash Royale Générateur et ceci ne sera pas éternel, alors sautez sur l'occasion pendant qu'elle est encore disponible !
  À propos de Clash Royale Generateur Triche Et Astuce Clash Royale est un jeu mobile populaire programmé par Supercell et qui est disponible pour les appareils iOS et Android. Depuis 2016, il est l’un des nouveaux jeu de la companie Supercell. C’est un jeu très populaire qui est à télécharger et qui vaut la peine d'être jouer, mais les utilisateurs doivent dépenser de l’argent pour avoir une armée plus forte. C’est pourquoi les joueurs sont à la recherche de gemmes pour Clash Royale pour pouvoir gagner la plupart des combats contre les autres joueurs. Il semble y avoir déjà beaucoup de Triche pour Clash Royale en ligne, mais aucun n’est aussi bon et performant que notre générateur pour ce jeu. Tout cela peut avoir l'air faux pour le joueur normal mais ceci est maintenant rendu possible avec l'aide de notre site ! Grâce au Générateur de gemmes pour Clash Royale et de sa grande fiabilité, vous resterez étonné de voir vos gemmes augmenter très rapidement. Avec les gemmes pour Clash Royale, vous allez monter dans les hautes sphère du classement des meilleurs joueurs du jeu. Ce générateur est le meilleur outil 100% en ligne pour Clash Royale. Ici, nous pouvons générer des gemmes directement à votre compte de Clash Royale, n'hésitez pas une seconde avant que cela ne sois plus possible ! Des gemmes illimité pour Clash Royale : Le but ultime de tout les joueurs ! Comme vous le savez probablement déjà, les gemmes coûtent vraiment cher en bout de ligne compte tenu du fait que ceux-ci s ffjfxwtw. канадская гусиная чилиont exclusivement offerts à des prix fixe allant jusqu'à $100. En plus, il y a beaucoup de joueurs qui ont d'autres priorités, comme les études par exemple. Le but du jeu est de frapper l’ennemi, le roi et les princesses de leurs tours pour vaincre vos adversaires et gagner des trophées, des couronnes et la gloire dans l’Aréna. Vous placez également une défense et vous devez l’améliorez afin de vous protéger contre les attaques des autres joueurs dans Clash Royale. Pour être le meilleur dans ce jeu, vous avez besoin de beaucoup de ressources tel que les gemmes. Ce sont les ressources requise pour acheter des unités comme l'armée, des bâtiments et des défenses pour vous protéger des attaques extérieure. Plus le niveau de vos unités sont élevé, plus votre armée sera puissante. Pour améliorer votre armée, vous vous devez d'avoir beaucoup de gemmes en votre posession. Vous pouvez obtenir des gemmes tout en fesant l'achat mais vous devez absolument attendre un long moment pour obtenir la bonne quantité dont vous avez besoin pour pouvoir progresser. Vous devez construire votre deck ultime pour vaincre vos adversaires, progresser à travers de multiples arénas jusqu'au sommet. Gagnez des coffres pour débloquer des récompenses afin de recueillir de nouvelles et puissantes cartes et à améliorer celles que vous avez déjà. Ensuite, vous pouvez détruire les tours de l’adversaire et gagner des couronnes pour reçevoir des coffres Couronne épique. Former un clan tout en partageant des cartes et vous pourrez construire votre propre communauté de bataille. Vous n'avez pas besoin d'attendre des heures, voir des jours pour finaliser vos trucs tout en utilisant notre Générateur De gemmes pour Clash Royale. Clash Royale
est un jeu qui est très récent. Il est débarqué sur le App Store/Google Store au début du mois de mars 2016 sur Android et iPhone en Europe après une période d'essai du côté transatlantique (Canada, Australie, Nouvelle-Zélande etc). Ce jeu révolutionne la façon de jouer comme le jeu de Clash of Clans. Jusqu'à maintenant, tout le plaisir prends place dans l’arène de combat car vous devez détruire le roi adverse par tous les moyens nécessaire. Cela étant dit, ce jeu simplifie la manière dont on voyait Clash of Clans, sauf qu'il apporte une toute autre dimension, un vent de renouveau plus intime. Effectivement, nous sommes revenu dans le classique 1v1 (1 contre 1). Chacun doit se préparer à défendre son territoire de manière plus engagée et directe. Il faut être vif d’esprit, car l'ennemi est tout près et le jeu ne s'arrête jamais et les ennemis sont toujours de plus en plus nombreux. Les joueurs qui avaient avaient pris l'habitude d'être en mode défensif seront forcé de changer rapidement de stratégie car celle-ci ne sera plus valide avec Clash Royale. Gemmes illimités pour Clash Royale Si vous désirez progresser rapidement dans Clash Royale, vous allez devoir malheureusement sortir quelques Euros de votre porte-feuille ! Ici chez Clash Royale Generateur, nous pouvons vous générer des gemmes illimités pour Clash Royale. Tout ce que vous avez à faire est d'écrire votre pseudo dans la case indiqué, choisir le nombre de ressources que vous voulez et vous cliquez sur le bouton "Générer" ! Rendu à ce stade vous n'avez qu'à laisser la magie opérer jusqu'à la fin. Nous nous connectons aux serveurs via des proxys sécurisé et protégé et c'est à ce moment-là que notre générateur injecte les gemmes que vous avez demander sur votre compte de Clash Royale. L'opération est instantané mais vous allez devoir attendre quelques heures pour que les ressources apparaissent sur votre jeu. Les programmeurs qui travaillent sur le jeu Clash Royale ont très bien compris comment faire rouler les profits avec leur jeu car ils vous donnent tout doucement les gemmes au fur et à mesure que vous participer à des combats. Vous les accumulerez au compte goutte mais malheureusement cela n'est vraiment pas suffisant, surtout si vous voulez progresser très rapidement dans le jeu. Grâce à notre site Internet vous avez une alternative à votre disposition alors vous feriez mieux d'en profitez pendant que cela est possible ! Nous travaillons en étroite collaboration avec l'éditeur afin de pouvoir partager avec les joueurs un nombre respectable de gemmes et d'or. Il est donc primordial que vous compreniez que nous ne pouvons pas en distribuer à TOUT le monde par simple logique. Si une personne sous la même adresse I.P. essaie de générer plusieurs fois de suite des ressources que nous avons mis a votre disposition, elle va être bannie automatiquement de nos serveurs grâce à l'algorithme de notre script. Gemmes illimité pour Clash Royale Notre site est le numéro 1 lorsque viens le temps de générer des ressources, une chose que la plupart des gens ne font en sous-traitance. Ne vous en faites pas, nos intentions sont bonnes et notre service demeure restera toujours le meilleur comparé aux autres et on vous propose d'obtenir un maximum de gemmes. Dur à croire, mais pourtant cela est bel et bien vrai, car notre service de partage de gemmes illimité pour Clash Royale utilise plusieurs générateurs de ressources, mis à jour sur une base régulière avec un système anti-ban qui est sans risque afin de générer des ressources à la porté de la main de nos utilisateurs. Finalement, ce n'est pas nécessaire de dépenser de l'argent pour être en mesure d'avoir des cartes très fortes. Avec notre Générateur de ressources pour Clash Royale, vous allez devenir un adversaire redoutable et vous retrouvez dans la liste des meilleurs joueurs du jeu.
Vous voulez savoir les meilleures astuces pour Clash Royale? Allez sur le site d'Androidpit, le rédacteur en chef à écrit un article vraiment éducatif et intéressant à la fois. Pour commencer, si vous n'êtes qu'un joueur qui débute, il vous sera expliquer comment ne pas vous faire avoir et de tomber dans les pièges et arnaques les plus facile et stupide. En effet sur Clash Royale, lorsque vous êtes au commencement, nous voulons attaquer les tours de notre adversaire les yeux fermés. Sauf que plus que vous avancez dans le jeu et que vous progressez, les adversaires deviennent de plus en plus difficile et les personnages deviennent très bon pour anéantir vos tours à vous-même. Par contre l'élixir ne bouge pas, la limite est fixé à 10, ce qui à pour limiter votre intention de déployer rapidement vos unités. C'est à ce moment qu'il est primordial de se bâtir un bon deck. Avec le jeu Clash Royale, vous vous devez d'être motivé ! Si vous perdez un combat, ce n'est pas plus grave que ça ! Vous allez apprendre de vos erreurs et vous allez devoir vous ajuster en conséquence. Avec le generateur Clash Royal, vous pourrez faire évoluer toutes vos cartes plus facilement et sans que cela vous coûte les yeux de la tête. Remplissez votre deck de nombreuses cartes puissante et peu coûteuse en élixir et n'attendez pas pour ouvrir un coffre ou pour augmenter de niveau général.
Notre Générateur est compatible avec les appareils iOS tels que l'iPhone , l'iPod, l'iPad et sans oublier sous les appareils Android aussi. Amusez-vous avec notre générateur de ressources pour Clash Royale et devenez la meilleure équipe de la communauté ! Aucun téléchargement n'est requis puisque la procédure se fait en ligne directement sur notre site web. Sur ce bon jeu et passez une bonne journée ! Testé et fonctionnel en date d'aujourd'hui, . Opinion des utilisateurs Jeu: Clash Royale Date: 2017-06-01 Objet:
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Georgia (U.S. state)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Changes must be reviewed before being displayed on this page. This is the latest accepted revision, reviewed on 23 November 2017 . Jump to: navigation, search This article is about the U.S. state. For the country, see Georgia (country). For other uses, see Georgia. "State of Georgia" redirects here. For the TV series, see State of Georgia (TV series). State of Georgia Flag of Georgia State seal of Georgia Flag Seal Nickname(s): Peach State, Empire State of the South Motto(s): Wisdom, Justice, Moderation Map of the United States with Georgia highlighted Official language English Spoken languages English, Spanish (7.42%) Demonym Georgian Capital
(and largest city) Atlanta Largest metro Atlanta metropolitan area Area Ranked 24th  • Total 59,425 sq mi
(153,909 km 2 )  • Width 230 miles (370 km)  • Length 298 miles (480 km)  • % water 2.6  • Latitude 30.356 – 34.985° N  • Longitude 80.840 – 85.605° W Population Ranked 8th  • Total 10,310,371 (2016 est.) [1]  • Density 165/sq mi  (65.4/km 2 )
Ranked 18th  • Median household income $50,768 [2] (39th) Elevation  • Highest point Brasstown Bald [3] [4]
4,784 ft (1458 m)  • Mean 600 ft  (180 m)  • Lowest point Atlantic Ocean [3]
sea level Before statehood Province of Georgia Admission to Union January 2, 1788 (4th) Governor Nathan Deal (R) Lieutenant Governor Casey Cagle (R) Legislature Georgia General Assembly  • Upper house State Senate  • Lower house House of Representatives U.S. Senators Johnny Isakson (R)
David Perdue (R) U.S. House delegation 10 Republicans, 4 Democrats (list) Time zone Eastern: UTC −5/−4 ISO 3166 US-GA Abbreviations GA, Ga. Website www .georgia .gov Georgia state symbols Flag of Georgia (U.S. state).svg The Flag of Georgia Seal of Georgia.svg The Seal of Georgia Living insignia Amphibian American green tree frog Bird Brown thrasher ( Toxostoma rufum ) Fish Largemouth bass Flower Cherokee Rose Insect Honey bee Mammal White-tailed deer Reptile Gopher tortoise ( Gopherus polyphemus ) Tree Live oak ( Quercus virginiana ) Inanimate insignia Food Peanut Mineral Staurolite Song "Georgia on My Mind" Other Vegetable: Vidalia onion
Marine mammal: Right whale State route marker Georgia state route marker State quarter Georgia quarter dollar coin Released in 1999 Lists of United States state symbols

Georgia ( / ˈ dʒ ɔːr dʒ ə /  ( About this sound  listen ) JOR-juh ) is a state in the southeastern United States. It began as a British colony in 1733, the last of the original Thirteen Colonies. [5] Named after King George II of Great Britain, [6] the Province of Georgia covered the area from South Carolina down to Spanish Florida and New France along Louisiana (New France) , also bordering to the west towards the Mississippi River. Georgia was the fourth state to ratify the United States Constitution, on January 2, 1788. [7] In 1802-1804, western Georgia was split to the Mississippi Territory, which later split to form Alabama with part of former West Florida in 1819. Georgia declared its secession from the Union on January 19, 1861, and was one of the original seven Confederate states. [7] It was the last state to be restored to the Union, on July 15, 1870. [7] Georgia is the 24th largest and the 8th most populous of the 50 United States. From 2007 to 2008, 14 of Georgia's counties ranked among the nation's 100 fastest-growing, second only to Texas. [8] Georgia is known as the Peach State and the Empire State of the South . [7] Atlanta is the state's capital, its most populous city, and has been named a global city.

Georgia is bordered to the south by Florida, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean and South Carolina, to the west by Alabama, and to the north by Tennessee and North Carolina. The state's northernmost part is in the Blue Ridge Mountains, part of the Appalachian Mountains system. The Piedmont extends through the central part of the state from the foothills of the Blue Ridge to the Fall Line, where the rivers cascade down in elevation to the coastal plain of the state's southern part. Georgia's highest point is Brasstown Bald at 4,784 feet (1,458 m) above sea level; the lowest is the Atlantic Ocean. Of the states entirely east of the Mississippi River, Georgia is the largest in land area. [9]

Contents

  • 1 History
  • 2 Geography
    • 2.1 Boundaries
    • 2.2 Geology and terrain
    • 2.3 Ecology
    • 2.4 Flora
    • 2.5 Fauna
    • 2.6 Climate
  • 3 Demographics
    • 3.1 Population
    • 3.2 Languages
    • 3.3 Major cities
    • 3.4 Religion
  • 4 Government
    • 4.1 State government
    • 4.2 Local government
    • 4.3 Elections
    • 4.4 Politics
  • 5 Economy
    • 5.1 Agriculture
    • 5.2 Mining
    • 5.3 Industry
    • 5.4 Logistics
    • 5.5 Military
    • 5.6 Energy use and production
    • 5.7 State taxes
    • 5.8 Film
    • 5.9 Tourism
  • 6 Cultural
    • 6.1 Fine and performing arts
    • 6.2 Literature
    • 6.3 Television
    • 6.4 Music
    • 6.5 Film
    • 6.6 Sports
  • 7 Parks and recreational activities
  • 8 Education
  • 9 Media
  • 10 Infrastructure
    • 10.1 Transportation
    • 10.2 Health care
  • 11 Cities
  • 12 Notable people
  • 13 State symbols
  • 14 See also
  • 15 References
  • 16 Bibliography
  • 17 External links

History [ edit ]

Main article: History of Georgia (U.S. state)

Before settlement by Europeans, Georgia was inhabited by the mound building cultures. The British colony of Georgia was founded by James Oglethorpe on February 12, 1733. [10] The colony was administered by the Trustees for the Establishment of the Colony of Georgia in America under a charter issued by (and named for) King George II. The Trustees implemented an elaborate plan for the colony's settlement, known as the Oglethorpe Plan, which envisioned an agrarian society of yeoman farmers and prohibited slavery. The colony was invaded by the Spanish in 1742, during the War of Jenkins' Ear. In 1752, after the government failed to renew subsidies that had helped support the colony, the Trustees turned over control to the crown. Georgia became a crown colony, with a governor appointed by the king. [11]

The Battle of Kennesaw Mountain, on June 27, 1864

The Province of Georgia was one of the Thirteen Colonies that revolted against British rule in the American Revolution by signing the 1776 Declaration of Independence. The State of Georgia's first constitution was ratified in February 1777. Georgia was the 10th state to ratify the Articles of Confederation on July 24, 1778, [12] and was the 4th state to ratify the current Constitution on January 2, 1788.

In 1829, gold was discovered in the North Georgia mountains, which led to the Georgia Gold Rush and an established federal mint in Dahlonega, which continued its operation until 1861. The subsequent influx of white settlers put pressure on the government to take land from the Cherokee Nation. In 1830, President Andrew Jackson signed the Indian Removal Act into law, sending many eastern Native American nations to reservations in present-day Oklahoma, including all of Georgia's tribes. Despite the Supreme Court's ruling in Worcester v. Georgia (1832) that ruled U.S. states were not permitted to redraw the Indian boundaries, President Jackson and the state of Georgia ignored the ruling. In 1838, his successor, Martin Van Buren, dispatched federal troops to gather the Cherokee and deport them west of the Mississippi. This forced relocation, known as the Trail of Tears, led to the death of over 4,000 Cherokees.

In early 1861, Georgia joined the Confederacy and became a major theater of the Civil War. Major battles took place at Chickamauga, Kennesaw Mountain, and Atlanta. In December 1864, a large swath of the state from Atlanta to Savannah was destroyed during General William Tecumseh Sherman's March to the Sea. 18,253 Georgian soldiers died in service, roughly one of every five who served. [13] In 1870, following the Reconstruction Era, Georgia became the last Confederate state to be restored to the Union.

A girl spinner in a Georgia cotton mill, 1909.

With white Democrats having regained power in the state legislature, they passed a poll tax in 1877, which disenfranchised many poor blacks and whites, preventing them from registering. [14] In 1908, the state established a white primary; with the only competitive contests within the Democratic Party, it was another way to exclude blacks from politics. [15] They constituted 46.7% of the state's population in 1900, but the proportion of Georgia's population that was African American dropped thereafter to 28% primarily due to leaving the state during the Great Migration. [16] This disfranchisement persisted through the mid-1960s, until federal legislation with the Voting Rights Act of 1965.

Geography [ edit ]

Main article: Geography of Georgia (U.S. state) Road to Brasstown Bald Jekyll Island Okefenokee Swamp, Georgia

Boundaries [ edit ]

Beginning from the Atlantic Ocean, the state's eastern border with South Carolina runs up the Savannah River, northwest to its origin at the confluence of the Tugaloo and Seneca Rivers. It then continues up the Tugaloo (originally Tugalo) and into the Chattooga River, its most significant tributary. These bounds were decided in the 1797 Treaty of Beaufort, and tested in the U.S. Supreme Court in the two Georgia v. South Carolina cases in 1923 and 1989.

The border then takes a sharp turn around the tip of Rabun County, at latitude 35°N, though from this point it diverges slightly south (due to inaccuracies in the original survey). This northern border was originally the Georgia and North Carolina border all the way to the Mississippi River, until Tennessee was divided from North Carolina, and the Yazoo companies induced the legislature of Georgia to pass an act, approved by the governor in 1795, to sell the greater part of Georgia's territory presently comprising Alabama and Mississippi. [17]

The state's western border runs in a straight line south-southeastward from a point southwest of Chattanooga, to meet the Chattahoochee River near West Point. It continues downriver to the point where it joins the Flint River (the confluence of the two forming Florida's Apalachicola River); the southern border goes almost due east and very slightly south, in a straight line to the St. Mary's River, which then forms the remainder of the boundary back to the ocean.

The water boundaries are still set to be the original thalweg of the rivers. Since then, several have been inundated by lakes created by dams, including the Apalachicola/Chattahoochee/Flint point now under Lake Seminole.

Georgia state legislators have claimed that in an 1818 survey, the state's border with Tennessee was erroneously placed one mile (1.6 km) farther south than intended, and they proposed a correction in 2010. The state was then in the midst of a significant drought, and the new border would allow Georgia access to water from the Tennessee River. [18]

Geology and terrain [ edit ]

Map of elevations in Georgia Main article: Geology of Georgia (U.S. state)

Each region has its own distinctive characteristics. For instance, the Ridge and Valley, which lies in the northwest corner of the state, includes limestone, sandstone, shale and other sedimentary rocks, which have yielded construction-grade limestone, barite, ocher, and small amounts of coal.

Ecology [ edit ]

Main article: Ecology of Georgia

Flora [ edit ]

The state of Georgia has approximately 250 tree species and 58 protected plants. Georgia's native trees include red cedar, a variety of pines, oaks, hollies, cypress, sweetgum, scaly-bark and white hickories and sabal palmetto. East Georgia is in the subtropical coniferous forest biome and conifer species as other broadleaf evergreen flora make up the majority of the southern and coastal regions. Yellow jasmine, and mountain laurel make up just a few of the flowering shrubs in the state.

See also: List of taxa described from Georgia

Fauna [ edit ]

White-tailed (Virginia) deer are in nearly all counties. The northern mockingbird and brown thrasher are among the 160 bird species that live in the state. [19]

Reptiles and amphibians include the eastern diamondback, copperhead, and cottonmouth, salamanders, frogs, alligators and toads. There are about 79 species of reptile and 63 amphibians known to live in Georgia. [19]

The most popular freshwater game fish are trout, bream, bass, and catfish, all but the last of which are produced in state hatcheries for restocking. Popular saltwater game fish include red drum, spotted seatrout, flounder, and tarpon. Porpoises, whales, shrimp, oysters, and blue crabs are found inshore and offshore of the Georgia coast. [19]

See also: List of taxa described from Georgia

Climate [ edit ]

Main article: Climate of Georgia (U.S. state) Köppen climate classification types of Georgia Image of March 1993 Storm of the Century covering the length of the east coast. The outline of Georgia is discernible in the center of the image.

The majority of the state is primarily a humid subtropical climate. Hot and humid summers are typical, except at the highest elevations. The entire state, including the North Georgia mountains, receives moderate to heavy precipitation, which varies from 45 inches (1143 mm) in central Georgia [20] to approximately 75 inches (1905 mm) around the northeast part of the state. [21] The degree to which the weather of a certain region of Georgia is subtropical depends on the latitude, its proximity to the Atlantic Ocean or Gulf of Mexico, and the elevation. The latter factor is felt chiefly in the mountainous areas of the northern part of the state, which are farther away from the ocean and can be 4500 feet (1350 m) above sea level. The USDA Plant hardiness zones for Georgia range from zone 6b (no colder than −5 °F (−21 °C) ) in the Blue Ridge Mountains to zone 8b (no colder than 15 °F (−9 °C) ) along the Atlantic coast and Florida border. [22]

The highest temperature ever recorded is 112 °F (44.4 °C) in Louisville on July 24, 1952, [23] while the lowest is −17 °F (−27.2 °C) in northern Floyd County on January 27, 1940. [24] Georgia is one of the leading states in frequency of tornadoes, though they are rarely stronger than F1. Although tornadoes striking the city are very rare, [25] a F2 nonviolent tornado [25] hit downtown Atlanta on March 14, 2008, causing moderate to severe damage to various buildings. With a coastline on the Atlantic Ocean, Georgia is also vulnerable to hurricanes, although direct hurricane strikes were rare during the 20th century. Georgia often is affected by hurricanes that strike the Florida panhandle, weaken over land, and bring strong tropical storm winds and heavy rain to the interior, as well as hurricanes that come close to the Georgia coastline, brushing the coast on their way north.

Monthly average daily high and low temperatures for major Georgia cities City Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Athens 51/11
33/1 56/13
35/2 65/18
42/6 73/23
49/9 80/27
58/14 87/31
65/18 90/32
69/21 88/31
68/20 82/28
63/17 73/23
51/11 63/17
42/6 54/12
35/2 Atlanta 52/11
34/1 57/14
36/2 65/18
44/7 73/23
50/10 80/27
60/16 86/30
67/19 89/32
71/22 88/31
70/21 82/28
64/18 73/23
53/12 63/17
44/7 55/13
36/2 Augusta 56/13
33/1 61/16
36/4 69/21
42/6 77/25
48/9 84/29
57/14 90/32
65/18 92/33
70/21 90/32
68/20 85/29
62/17 76/24
50/10 68/20
41/5 59/15
35/2 Columbus 57/14
37/3 62/17
39/4 69/21
46/8 76/24
52/11 83/28
61/16 90/32
69/21 92/33
72/22 91/32
72/22 86/30
66/19 77/25
54/12 68/20
46/8 59/15
39/4 Macon 57/14
34/1 61/16
37/3 68/20
44/7 76/24
50/10 83/28
59/15 90/32
67/19 92/33
70/21 90/32
70/21 85/29
64/18 77/25
51/11 68/20
42/6 59/15
36/2 Savannah 60/16
38/3 64/18
41/5 71/22
48/9 78/26
53/12 84/29
61/16 90/32
68/20 92/33
72/22 90/32
71/22 86/30
67/19 78/26
56/13 70/21
47/8 63/17
40/4 Temperatures are given in °F/°C format, with highs on top of lows. [26]

Demographics [ edit ]

Main article: Demographics of Georgia (U.S. state) Historical population Census Pop. %± 1790 82,548 — 1800 162,686 97.1% 1810 251,407 54.5% 1820 340,989 35.6% 1830 516,823 51.6% 1840 691,392 33.8% 1850 906,185 31.1% 1860 1,057,286 16.7% 1870 1,184,109 12.0% 1880 1,542,181 30.2% 1890 1,837,353 19.1% 1900 2,216,331 20.6% 1910 2,609,121 17.7% 1920 2,895,832 11.0% 1930 2,908,506 0.4% 1940 3,123,723 7.4% 1950 3,444,578 10.3% 1960 3,943,116 14.5% 1970 4,589,575 16.4% 1980 5,463,105 19.0% 1990 6,478,216 18.6% 2000 8,186,453 26.4% 2010 9,687,653 18.3% Est. 2016 10,310,371 6.4% 1910–2010 [27]
2015 Estimate [28] Population density of Georgia.

The United States Census Bureau estimates that the population of Georgia was 10,214,860 on July 1, 2015, a 5.44% increase since the 2010 United States Census. [28]

In 2015, Georgia had an estimated population of 10,214,860 which was an increase of 117,517 from the previous year, and an increase of 527,207 since 2010. This includes a natural increase since the last census of 438,939 people (that is 849,414 births minus 410,475 deaths) and an increase from net migration of 606,673 people into the state. Immigration resulted in a net increase of 228,415 people, and migration within the country produced a net increase of 378,258 people.

As of 2010 [update] , the state has the sixth highest number of illegal immigrants in the country. There were 35,000 in 1990; the count more than doubled from January 2000 to January 2009, at 480,000. [29]

There were 743,000 veterans in 2009. [30]

Population [ edit ]

According to the 2010 United States Census, Georgia had a population of 9,687,653. In terms of race and ethnicity, the state was 59.7% White (55.9% Non-Hispanic White Alone), 30.5% Black or African American, 0.3% American Indian and Alaska Native, 3.2% Asian, 0.1% Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander, 4.0% from Some Other Race, and 2.1% from Two or More Races. Hispanics and Latinos of any race made up 8.8% of the population. [31]

Georgia Racial Breakdown of Population Racial composition 1990 [32] 2000 [33] 2010 [34] White 71.0% 65.1% 59.7% Black 27.0% 28.7% 30.5% Asian 1.2% 2.1% 3.3% Native 0.2% 0.3% 0.3% Native Hawaiian and
other Pacific Islander – 0.1% 0.1% Other race 0.6% 2.4% 4.0% Two or more races – 1.4% 2.1%

As of 2011 [update] , 58.8% of Georgia's population younger than age 1 were minorities (meaning that they had at least one parent who was not non-Hispanic white) compared to other states like California with 75.1%, New York with 55.6%, and Texas with 69.8%. [35]

The largest European ancestry groups are:

  • English 8.1%
  • Irish 8.1% [36]
  • German 7.2% [37]

In the 1980 census 1,584,303 Georgians claimed English ancestry out of a total state population of 3,994,817, making them 40% of the state, and the largest ethnic group at the time. [38] Today, many of these same people claiming that they are of "American" ancestry are actually of English descent, and some are of Scots-Irish descent; however, their families have lived in the state for so long, in many cases since the colonial period, that they choose to identify simply as having "American" ancestry or do not in fact know their own ancestry. Their ancestry primarily goes back to the original thirteen colonies and for this reason many of them today simply claim "American" ancestry, though they are of predominately English ancestry. [39] [40] [41] [42]

As of 2004 [update] , 7.7% of Georgia's population was reported as under 5 years of age, 26.4% under 18, and 9.6% were 65 or older. Also as of 2004 [update] , females made up approximately 50.6% of the population and African Americans made up approximately 29.6%.

Historically, about half of Georgia's population was composed of African Americans who, before the Civil War, were almost exclusively enslaved. The Great Migration of hundreds of thousands of blacks from the rural South to the industrial North from 1914–70 reduced the African American population. [43]

Georgia had the second-fastest-growing Asian population growth in the U.S. from 1990 to 2000, more than doubling in size during the ten-year period. [44] In addition, according to census estimates, Georgia ranks third among the states in terms of the percent of the total population that is African American (after Mississippi and Louisiana) and third in numerical Black population after New York and Florida. Georgia was the state with the largest numerical increase in the black population from 2006 to 2007 with 84,000.

Georgia is the state with the third-lowest percentage of older people (65 or older), at 12.8 percent (as of 2015 [update] ). [45]

The colonial settlement of large numbers of Scottish American, English American and Scotch-Irish Americans in the mountains and piedmont, and coastal settlement by some English Americans and African Americans, have strongly influenced the state's culture in food, language and music. The concentration of Africans imported to coastal areas in the 18th century repeatedly from rice-growing regions of West Africa led to the development of Gullah-Geechee language and culture in the Low Country among African Americans. They share a unique heritage in which African traditions of food, religion and culture were continued more than in some other areas. In the creolization of Southern culture, their foodways became an integral part of all Southern cooking in the Low Country. [46] [47]

Languages [ edit ]

Top 10 Non-English Languages Spoken in Georgia Language Percentage of population
(as of 2010 [update] ) [48] Spanish 7.42% Korean 0.51% Vietnamese 0.44% French 0.42% Chinese (including Mandarin) 0.38% German 0.29% Hindi 0.23% Niger-Congo languages of West Africa (Ibo, Kru, and Yoruba) 0.21% Gujarati 0.18% Portuguese and French Creole 0.16%

As of 2010 [update] , 87.35% (7,666,663) of Georgia residents age 5 and older spoke English at home as a primary language, while 7.42% (651,583) spoke Spanish, 0.51% (44,702) Korean, 0.44% (38,244) Vietnamese, 0.42% (36,679) French, 0.38% (33,009) Chinese (which includes Mandarin), and German, which was spoken as a main language by 0.29% (23,351) of the population over the age of five. In total, 12.65% (1,109,888) of Georgia's population age 5 and older spoke a mother language other than English. [48]

Major cities [ edit ]

 
  • v
  • t
  • e
Largest cities or towns in Georgia (U.S. state)
http://factfinder.census.gov/faces/tableservices/jsf/pages/productview.xhtml?src/bkmk = Rank Name County Pop. Atlanta
Atlanta
Columbus
Columbus 1 Atlanta Fulton 472,522 Augusta
Augusta
Macon
Macon 2 Columbus Muscogee 197,485 3 Augusta Richmond 197,081 4 Macon Bibb 152,555 5 Savannah Chatham 146,763 6 Athens Clarke 123,371 7 Sandy Springs Fulton 105,703 8 Roswell Fulton 94,598 9 Johns Creek Fulton 83,873 10 Warner Robins Houston 74,388

Populations indicated above are the latest 2016 estimates from the U.S. Census Bureau. In 2012, voters in Macon and Bibb County approved the consolidation of the city of Macon and unincorporated Bibb County; they officially merged on January 1, 2014. Macon joined Columbus, Augusta, and Athens as consolidated cities in Georgia.

  • The U.S. Census Bureau lists fourteen metropolitan areas in Georgia. The largest, Atlanta, is the ninth most populous metro area in the United States.

Religion [ edit ]

St. Mark's United Methodist Church in Atlanta

The composition of religious affiliation in Georgia is 70% Protestant, 9% Catholic, 1% Mormon, 1% Jewish, 0.5% Muslim, 0.5% Buddhist, and 0.5% Hindu. Atheists, deists, agnostics, and other unaffiliated people make up 13% of the population. [49] The largest Christian denominations by number of adherents in 2010 were the Southern Baptist Convention with 1,759,317; the United Methodist Church with 619,394; and the Roman Catholic Church with 596,384. Non-denominational Evangelical Protestant had 566,782 members, the Church of God (Cleveland, Tennessee) has 175,184 members, and the National Baptist Convention, USA, Inc. has 172,982 members. [50] The Presbyterian Church (USA) is the largest Presbyterian body in the state, with 300 congregations and 100,000 members. The other large body, Presbyterian Church in America, had at its founding date 14 congregations and 2,800 members; in 2010 it counted 139 congregations and 32,000 members. [51] [52] The Roman Catholic Church is noteworthy in Georgia's urban areas, and includes the Archdiocese of Atlanta and the Diocese of Savannah. Georgia is home to the largest Hindu temple in the United States, the BAPS Shri Swaminarayan Mandir Atlanta, located in the suburb city of Lilburn. Georgia is home to several historical synagogues including The Temple (Atlanta), Congregation Beth Jacob (Atlanta), and Congregation Mickve Israel (Savannah). Chabad and the Rohr Jewish Learning Institute are also active in the state. [53] [54]

Government [ edit ]

Main article: Government of Georgia (U.S. state)

State government [ edit ]

See also: List of governors of Georgia and Georgia elected officials The Georgia State Capitol in Atlanta with the distinctive gold dome City Hall in Savannah

As with all other US states and the federal government, Georgia's government is based on the separation of legislative, executive, and judicial power. [55] Executive authority in the state rests with the governor, currently Nathan Deal (Republican). Both the Governor of Georgia and lieutenant governor are elected on separate ballots to four-year terms of office. Unlike the federal government, but like many other U.S. States, most of the executive officials who comprise the governor's cabinet are elected by the citizens of Georgia rather than appointed by the governor.

Legislative authority resides in the General Assembly, composed of the Senate and House of Representatives. The Lieutenant Governor presides over the Senate, while members of the House of Representatives select their own Speaker. The Georgia Constitution mandates a maximum of 56 senators, elected from single-member districts, and a minimum of 180 representatives, apportioned among representative districts (which sometimes results in more than one representative per district); there are currently 56 senators and 180 representatives. The term of office for senators and representatives is two years. [56] The laws enacted by the General Assembly are codified in the Official Code of Georgia Annotated.

State judicial authority rests with the state Supreme Court and Court of Appeals, which have statewide authority. [57] In addition, there are smaller courts which have more limited geographical jurisdiction, including Superior Courts, State Courts, Juvenile Courts, Magistrate Courts and Probate Courts. Justices of the Supreme Court and judges of the Court of Appeals are elected statewide by the citizens in non-partisan elections to six-year terms. Judges for the smaller courts are elected to four-year terms by the state's citizens who live within that court's jurisdiction.

Local government [ edit ]

Further information: List of counties in Georgia

Georgia consists of 159 counties, second only to Texas, with 254. [58] Georgia had 161 counties until the end of 1931, when Milton and Campbell were merged into the existing Fulton. Some counties have been named for prominent figures in both American and Georgian history, and many bear names with Native American origin. Counties in Georgia have their own elected legislative branch, usually called the Board of Commissioners, which usually also has executive authority in the county. [59] Several counties have a sole Commissioner form of government, with legislative and executive authority vested in a single person. Georgia is the only state with Sole Commissioner counties. Georgia's Constitution provides all counties and cities with "home rule" authority. The county commissions have considerable power to pass legislation within their county, as a municipality would.

Georgia recognizes all local units of government as cities, so every incorporated town is legally a city. Georgia does not provide for townships or independent cities, though there have been bills proposed in the Legislature to provide for townships; [60] it does allow consolidated city-county governments by local referendum. All of Georgia's second-tier cities except Savannah have now formed consolidated city-county governments by referendum: Columbus (in 1970), Athens (1990), Augusta (1995), and Macon (2012). (Augusta and Athens have excluded one or more small, incorporated towns within their consolidated boundaries, while Macon has excluded a small unincorporated area; Columbus eventually absorbed all smaller incorporated entities within its consolidated boundaries.) The small town of Cusseta adopted a consolidated city-county government in 2003.

There is no true metropolitan government in Georgia, though the Atlanta Regional Commission (ARC) and Georgia Regional Transportation Authority do provide some services, and the ARC must approve all major land development projects in the Atlanta metropolitan area.

Elections [ edit ]

Main article: Elections in Georgia (U.S. state) See also: United States presidential election, 2004, in Georgia and Political party strength in Georgia (U.S. state) Presidential elections results Year Republican Democratic 2016 51.30% 2,068,623 45.60% 1,837,300 2012 53.40% 2,070,221 45.44% 1,761,761 2008 52.20% 2,048,744 47.00% 1,844,137 2004 57.97% 1,914,254 41.37% 1,366,149 2000 54.67% 1,419,720 42.98% 1,116,230 1996 47.01% 1,080,843 45.84% 1,053,849 1992 42.88% 995,252 43.47% 1,008,966 1988 59.75% 1,081,331 39.50% 714,792 1984 60.17% 1,068,722 39.79% 706,628 1980 40.95% 654,168 55.76% 890,733 1976 32.96% 483,743 66.74% 979,409 1972 75.04% 881,496 24.65% 289,529 1968* 30.40% 380,111 26.75% 334,440 1964 54.12% 616,584 41.15% 522,557 1960 37.43% 274,472 62.54% 458,638 1956 32.65% 216,652 66.48% 441,094 1952 30.34% 198,979 69.66% 456,823 1948 18.31% 76,691 60.81% 254,646 1944 18.25% 59,880 81.74% 268,187 1940 14.83% 46,360 84.85% 265,194 *State won by George Wallace
of the American Independent Party,
at 42.83%, or 535,550 votes Treemap of the popular vote by county, 2016 presidential election.

Until 1964, Georgia's state government had the longest unbroken record of single-party dominance, by the Democratic Party, of any state in the Union. This record was established largely due to the disenfranchisement of most blacks and many poor whites by the state in its constitution and laws in the early 20th century. Some elements, such as requiring payment of poll taxes and passing literacy tests, prevented blacks from registering to vote; their exclusion from the political system lasted into the 1960s and reduced the Republican Party to a non-competitive status in the early 20th century. [61]

White Democrats regained power after Reconstruction due in part to the efforts of some using intimidation and violence, but this method came into disrepute. [62] In 1900, shortly before Georgia adopted a disfranchising constitutional amendment in 1908, blacks comprised 47% of the state's population. [63]

The whites dealt with this problem of potential political power by the 1908 amendment, which in practice disenfranchised blacks and poor whites, nearly half of the state population. It required that any male at least 21 years of age wanting to register to vote must also: (a) be of good character and able to pass a test on citizenship, (b) be able to read and write provisions of the U.S. and Georgia constitutions, or (c) own at least 40 acres of land or $500 in property. Any Georgian who had fought in any war from the American Revolution through the Spanish–American War was exempted from these additional qualifications. More importantly, any Georgian descended from a veteran of any of these wars also was exempted. Because by 1908 many white Georgia males were grandsons of veterans and/or owned the required property, the exemption and the property requirement basically allowed only well-to-do whites to vote. The qualifications of good character, citizenship knowledge, and literacy (all determined subjectively by white registrars), and property ownership were used to disqualify most blacks and poor whites, preventing them from registering to vote. The voter rolls dropped dramatically. [62] [64] In the early 20th century, Progressives promoted electoral reform and reducing the power of ward bosses to clean up politics. Their additional rules, such as the eight-box law, continued to effectively close out people who were illiterate. [15] White, one-party rule was solidified.

For more than 130 years, from 1872 to 2003, Georgians nominated and elected only white Democratic governors, and white Democrats held the majority of seats in the General Assembly. [65] Most of the Democrats elected throughout these years were Southern Democrats, who were fiscally and socially conservative by national standards. [66] [67] This voting pattern continued after the segregationist period. [68]

Legal segregation was ended by passage of federal legislation in the 1960s. According to the 1960 census, the proportion of Georgia's population that was African American was 28%; hundreds of thousands of blacks had left the state in the Great Migration to the North and Midwest. New white residents arrived through migration and immigration. Following support from the national Democratic Party for the civil rights movement and especially civil rights legislation of 1964 and 1965, most African-American voters, as well as other minority voters, have largely supported the Democratic Party in Georgia. [69] In the decades since the late 20th century, the conservative white-majority voters have increasingly supported Republicans for national and state offices.

In 2003, incumbent moderate Democratic Governor Roy Barnes was defeated by Republican Sonny Perdue, a state legislator and former Democrat. While Democrats retained control of the State House, they lost their majority in the Senate when four Democrats switched parties. They lost the House in the 2004 election. Republicans then controlled all three partisan elements of the state government.

Even before 2003, the state had become increasingly supportive of Republicans in Presidential elections. It has supported a Democrat for president only three times since 1960. In 1976 and 1980, native son Jimmy Carter carried the state; in 1992, the former Arkansas governor Bill Clinton narrowly won the state. Generally, Republicans are strongest in the predominantly white suburban (especially the Atlanta suburbs) and rural portions of the state. [70] Many of these areas were represented by conservative Democrats in the state legislature well into the 21st century. One of the most conservative of these was U.S. Congressman Larry McDonald, former head of the John Birch Society, who died when the Soviet Union shot down KAL 007 near Sakhalin Island. Democratic candidates have tended to win a higher percentage of the vote in the areas where black voters are most numerous, [70] as well as in the cities among liberal urban populations (especially Atlanta and Athens), and the rural Black Belt region that passes through the central and southwestern portion of the state.

The ascendancy of the Republican Party in Georgia and in the South in general resulted in Georgia U.S. House of Representatives member Newt Gingrich being elected as Speaker of the House following the election of a Republican majority in the House in 1994. Gingrich served as Speaker until 1999, when he resigned in the aftermath of the loss of House seats held by members of the GOP. Gingrich mounted an unsuccessful bid for President in the 2012 election, but withdrew after winning only the South Carolina and Georgia primaries.

In recent events, Democrat Jim Martin ran against incumbent Republican Senator Saxby Chambliss. Chambliss failed to acquire the necessary 50 percent of votes, a Libertarian Party candidate receiving the remainder of votes. In the runoff election held on December 2, 2008, Chambliss became the second Georgia Republican to be reelected to the U.S. Senate.

As of the 2010 [update] reapportionment, the state has 14 seats in the U.S. House of Representatives. These are held by 10 Republicans and 4 Democrats. The Georgia House of Representatives has 61 Democrats, 118 Republicans, and 1 Independent, while the Georgia Senate has 17 Democrats and 39 Republicans. [71] [72]

Politics [ edit ]

Main article: Politics of Georgia (U.S. state)

During the 1960s and 1970s, Georgia made significant changes in civil rights and governance. As in many other states, its legislature had not reapportioned congressional districts according to population from 1931 to after the 1960 census. Problems of malapportionment in the state legislature, where rural districts had outsize power in relation to urban districts, such as Atlanta's, were corrected after the US Supreme Court ruling in Wesberry v. Sanders (1964). The court ruled that congressional districts had to be reapportioned to have essentially equal populations.

A related case, Reynolds v. Sims (1964), required state legislatures to end their use of geographical districts or counties in favor of "one man, one vote;" that is, districts based upon approximately equal populations, to be reviewed and changed as necessary after each census. These changes resulted in residents of Atlanta and other urban areas gaining political power in Georgia in proportion to their populations. [73] From the mid-1960s, the voting electorate increased after African Americans' rights to vote were enforced under civil rights law.

Economic growth through this period was dominated by Atlanta and its region. It was a bedrock of the emerging "New South". From the late 20th century, Atlanta attracted headquarters and relocated workers of national companies, becoming more diverse, liberal and cosmopolitan than many areas of the state.

In the 21st century, many conservative Democrats, including former U.S. Senator and governor Zell Miller, decided to support Republicans. The state's socially conservative bent results in wide support for such measures as restrictions on abortion. In 2004, a state constitutional amendment banning same-sex marriages was approved by 76% of voters. [74] However, after the United States Supreme Court issued its ruling in Obergefell v. Hodges, all Georgia counties came into full compliance, recognizing the rights of same-sex couples to marry in the State. [75]

Economy [ edit ]

See also: Georgia (U.S. state) locations by per capita income

Georgia's 2010 total gross state product was $403 billion. [76] Its per capita personal income for 2011 put it 39th in the nation at $35,979. [77] For years Georgia as a state has had the highest credit rating by Standard & Poor's (AAA) and is one of only 15 states with a AAA rating. [78] If Georgia were a stand-alone country, it would be the 28th largest economy in the world. [79]

A heat map of Georgia's counties depicting the median income as of 2014.

There are 17 Fortune 500 companies and 26 Fortune 1000 companies with headquarters in Georgia, including such names as Home Depot, UPS, Coca-Cola, TSYS, Delta Air Lines, Aflac, Southern Company, Anthem Inc. (one of the largest health benefits companies), Honeywell, and SunTrust Banks. Further, more than 450 Fortune 500 companies call Georgia home, and Georgia has over 1,700 internationally headquartered facilities representing 43 countries, employing more than 112,000 Georgians with an estimated capital investment of $23 billion. [80]

Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport, the world's busiest airport as measured by both passenger traffic and aircraft traffic, is located in Georgia. [81] [82] Also, the Port of Savannah is the fourth largest seaport and fastest-growing container seaport in North America, importing and exporting a total of 2.3 million TEUs per year. [83]

Atlanta has a large effect on the state of Georgia, the Southeastern United States, and beyond. Atlanta has been the site of growth in real estate, service, logistics and the communications and film industries, while tourism is important to the economy. Atlanta is a global city, also called world city or sometimes alpha city or world center , as a city generally considered to be an important node in the global economic system.

For the past five years, Georgia has been ranked the top state (number 1) in the nation to do business, and has been recognized as number 1 for business and labor climate in the nation, number 1 in business climate in the nation, number 1 in the nation in workforce training and as having a “Best in Class” state economic development agency. [84] [85]

In 2016, Georgia had median annual income per person of between $50,000-$59,999 which is inflated adjusted dollars for 2016. The US Median annual income for the entire nation is $57,617. This lies within the range of Georgia's median annual income. [86]

Agriculture [ edit ]

Savannah's River Street is a popular tourist destination.

Widespread farms produce peanuts, corn, and soybeans across middle and south Georgia. The state is the number one producer of pecans in the world, with the region around Albany in southwest Georgia being the center of Georgia's pecan production. Gainesville in northeast Georgia touts itself as the Poultry Capital of the World. Georgia is in the top five blueberry producers in the United States. [87]

Georgia's agricultural outputs include poultry and eggs, pecans, peaches, cotton, peanuts, rye, cattle, hogs, dairy products, turfgrass, timber, particularly pine trees, tobacco and vegetables.

Mining [ edit ]

A Georgia U.S. quarter

Major products in the mineral industry include a variety of clays, stones, sands and the clay palygorskite, known as attapulgite.

See also: List of gold mines in Georgia

Industry [ edit ]

Industry in Georgia is diverse.

While many textile jobs moved overseas, there is still a textile industry located around the cities of Rome, Columbus, Augusta, Macon and along the I-75 corridor between Atlanta and Chattanooga, Tennessee. Historically it started along the fall line in the Piedmont, where factories were powered by waterfalls and rivers. It includes the towns of Cartersville, Calhoun, Ringgold and Dalton [88]



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